An Overview of Haglund's Deformity

Last updated: 06-03-2021

Read original article here

An Overview of Haglund's Deformity

Haglund's deformity is a seldom-heard term for a bony bump on the back of the heel bone, where your Achilles tendon attaches to your heel. The bump is often red and irritated and flares up on occasion, causing pain and swelling.

The bump is usually due to an abnormality in foot function or bone position that creates shoe friction around the natural bony prominence at the back of the heel bone. Genetics may also predispose you to the condition. Constant friction at the back of the heel can also irritate skin, causing changes such as redness, thickening, and increased skin lines.


Haglund's deformity was described in 1927 by Patrick Haglund. It's also known as retrocalcaneal exostosis, Mulholland deformity, and 'pump bump,' because it often occurs in women and is aggravated by certain shoes, including pumps and other high heels.
What Is Haglund's Deformity?
Haglund's deformity is relatively common but not very well understood. It's most common in middle age, more often seen in women than in men, and usually appears on both feet rather than just one. This condition is sometimes mistaken for other causes of pain in the rear of the foot, including:

Retrocalcaneal bursitis
Plantar fasciitis
Seronegative sponyloarthropathies
Symptoms of Haglund's Deformity
The primary symptoms of Haglund's deformity are:


A noticeable bump on the back of the heel
Pain
Swelling
Redness1
Blisters and/or callouses on and around the bump due to increased friction from shoes2

How Runners Can Prevent and Treat Foot Blisters
Causes
Along with genetics and a potentially misshapen bone, Haglund's deformity is believed to be caused by:

High arches
A tight Achilles tendon
Walking on the outside of your feet2
In runners, over-training
Tight or poor-fitting shoes
Abnormal foot biomechanics due to joint dealignment

The type of shoes you wear can influence whether you develop Haglund's deformity, too. Those most often linked to this problem have a stiff back and include:


Ice skates
Men's dress shoes
Women's pumps
Workboots

Diagnosis
A doctor who's knowledgeable about foot problems can diagnose Haglund's deformity based on a physical examination and X-rays.1 If the doctor isn't sure about the diagnosis at that point, they may order a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, as well.

Treatment
When a pump bump becomes inflamed, the most important part of treatment is to reduce pressure and friction at the site of the bump. The best way to do this is to ensure that you are wearing a shoe that fits well and offers adequate support. Usually, shoes that are a bad fit are to blame.

An array of conservative treatments are aimed at reducing pressure, pain, and inflammation. However, they don't shrink the bony protrusion itself. Conservative treatments include:1

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Ice to lower inflammation
Stretching exercises for the Achilles tendon
Heel pads to reduce irritation
Heel lifts to decrease pressure on the bone for people with high arches
Backless or soft-backed shoes
Custom foot orthotics that improve biomechanics
Immobilization such as with a cast or soft boot to allow it to heal
Physical therapy, especially with modalities like ultrasound that can lower inflammation
Steroid injections
If these approaches don't alleviate your pain enough, you may need to have surgery.

Find a Podiatrist
Complications
When the bony lump of Haglund's deformity rubs against shoes, it can cause other nearby tissues to become inflamed. That can lead to complications, including:3

Bursitis: Inflammation of a fluid-filled sac (bursa) that cushions a tendon against bone causes swelling and tenderness.
Achilles tendonitis: Symptoms of Achilles tendonitis, such as pain and swelling, usually occur a few centimeters above the area where the tendon attaches to the back of the heel.
Over time, chronic injury to the Achilles tendon can cause it to weaken and break down, a condition known as tendinosis.

Bursitis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the painful bump on the back of my heel?
If it's a hard bump at the base of the Achilles tendon that gets worse when you wear stiff-backed shoes, it may be Haglund's deformity.

Can you get rid of a Haglund's deformity bump?
You can lessen the inflammation of the Haglund's deformity bump, which may help it appear smaller, but you can only get rid of the bump entirely with surgery. Fortunately, surgery isn't necessary in most cases.

Does Haglund's deformity go away?
The bony protrusion itself won't just go away—that requires surgery—but you can minimize the lump and the pain and irritation it causes via many conservative treatment options.1

How long is recovery from Haglund's deformity?
Recovery time depends on the severity of the bump and what kind of treatment you receive. If surgery is necessary, you should expect to have a non-weight bearing cast on, meaning you can't walk, for about three weeks. After that, you'll likely have a walking cast or boot and start physical therapy. It may be between three and six months after surgery before you can wear high heels again.

A Word From Verywell
Haglund's syndrome can lead to significant pain and difficulty walking, but numerous treatments are available to alleviate that pain and, hopefully, keep it from coming back. If you notice a hard, painful lump on the back of your heel, don't wait—bring it up with your doctor before it gets worse and puts you at risk for complications. The earlier it's caught, the better chance you have of needing only conservative treatments to restore your function and get rid of the pain.


Read the rest of this article here